I'm just really curious to know if there is any way to check for the largest bounty ever awarded to someone for an answer.
Asked and answered over on MSE. Although Ixrec is correct that Kyle Hale's legendary ID answer is the top-earner network-wide, I'm going to shamelessly steal from rene's answer with a network-wide SEDE query:
Because SEDE is updated weekly, that query will sometimes not be perfectly accurate; nevertheless, it seems unlikely that anyone is going to beat Kyle's record anytime soon.
If you mean total bounty rep on one post, regardless of how many people contributed bounties to the total, I believe the accepted answer to "Story where the number 3 is the monster?" has the most bounty points of any post in the entire SE network: +3000