So the OP is asking for a plot synopsis to clear up his confusion on some plot points in the novel. That is EXACTLY on-topic according to the FAQ. In fact, it's the very first bullet point. The OP then goes on to enumerate his particular problems and things that he didn't understand in a list of eight questions, to make sure that he would get the answer that he is looking for. All of the questions are still under the same basic question of "Please explain the plot of this sci-fi thing", so why should he be required to split them up?
Questions 1, 2, 4, 6, & 8 seem directly related to even a cursory summary of the plot as three of them are addressed on the wikipedia page. 5 & 7 are both just questions about the powers of the protagonist (also appropriate for a plot summary). The only one that seems to be an outlier is 3 and I feel certain it would fit into any good answer to the question.